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Записи с темой: environment (список заголовков)
18:48 

Global Warming in brief - by National Geo

What Causes Global Warming?

Scientists have spent decades figuring out what is causing global warming. They've looked at the natural cycles and events that are known to influence climate. But the amount and pattern of warming that's been measured can't be explained by these factors alone. The only way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by humans.

To bring all this information together, the United Nations formed a group of scientists called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. The IPCC meets every few years to review the latest scientific findings and write a report summarizing all that is known about global warming. Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, among hundreds of leading scientists.

One of the first things scientists learned is that there are several greenhouse gases responsible for warming, and humans emit them in a variety of ways. Most come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, factories and electricity production. The gas responsible for the most warming is carbon dioxide, also called CO2. Other contributors include methane released from landfills and agriculture (especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals), nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes, and the loss of forests that would otherwise store CO2.

Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2. Other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (which have been banned in much of the world because they also degrade the ozone layer), have heat-trapping potential thousands of times greater than CO2. But because their concentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does.

In order to understand the effects of all the gases together, scientists tend to talk about all greenhouse gases in terms of the equivalent amount of CO2. Since 1990, yearly emissions have gone up by about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" worldwide, more than a 20 percent increase.

Effects of Global Warming

The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. And the effects of rising temperatures aren’t waiting for some far-flung future. They’re happening right now. Signs are appearing all over, and some of them are surprising. The heat is not only melting glaciers and sea ice, it’s also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move.

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@темы: English, Environment

23:35 

Cith Life or Life in the Country

BIG METROPOLIS OR BIG GARDEN? CULTURE OR NATURE? URBAN LIFESTYLE OR RURAL RELAXATION?

It seems that more and more people nowadays are moving to the city, searching for employment, entertainment and excitement. However, there are still many people who yearn for a life in the countryside.

So, which is it? Do you crave the action of the city? Or is the country-life the only way for you? Oxford CultureMania debates the pros and cons of living in the city and living in the countryside.

City Living

The Pros

The Culture – In cities there is no shortage of sights to see, museums to visit, concerts to go to, restaurants to eat at, art galleries to explore, and films and plays to see at the theatre or cinema.

The Convenience – People have everything within easy access thanks to the transport system, or even within walking distance. That is why they don’t need to drive for miles in order to get to work, go shopping, or attend medical appointments.

The Opportunities – Living in a city offers people many opportunities that just aren’t available in small towns or villages. There far are more jobs, flats are more plentiful and many more options for schools and universities.

The Cons

The Stress – City living can be incredibly stressful at times: the traffic, the crowds and noise can sometimes feel overwhelming.

The Crime – There is no doubt that city life is less safe than country life. Crime rates are generally higher and some areas of cities can be dangerous.

The Cost – Living in a city is more expensive no matter if it’s going for a meal, going to the cinema, buying a home or anything else.

Country living

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@темы: City, English, Environment, Vocabulary

Living environment - Warehouse 14

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