Записи с темой: writing (список заголовков)

Essay topics - Health

• Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
• In some countries levels of health and fitness are decreasing and average weights are increasing. What do you think are the causes of these problems and what are some possible solutions?
• Research indicates that the characteristic we are born with have much more influence on our personality and development than any other experiences we may have in our life. Which do you consider to be the major influence?
• Schools should do more to teach students about their health and wellbeing. Do you agree or disagree?
• More and more schools allow fast food restaurant to sell their products to their students. Is it a positive or a negative development?
15 more

@темы: English, Health, Writing


Essay topics - Education

• University students must pay all tuition fees, because it benefits mostly them individually, rather than the society as a whole. Do you agree or disagree?
• Some say that music, art and drama are as important as other school subjects, especially at the primary level. Do you agree or disagree?
• Some people believe that studying history is very important and we must study the past to understand the present. Others say that it is useless and should not be studied at all. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
• Some teachers tend to reward students who achieve high academic results. Others, however, support and reward students that show the most improvement. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
• Giving lectures in halls to large numbers of people is an outdated method of teaching. With the technology available today there is no justification for it, and everything should be done online. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
45 more

@темы: Writing, English, Education


Реальные темы эссе с экзаменов IELTS в 2010

Some people think that charity organizations should only offer help to people of their own country. But others believe that these organizations should give aid to people in great need wherever they live. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

In today's world, it is private companies rather than government who pay for and carry out most on scientific research.
To what extent do you think the advantages outweigh disadvantages?

The gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider. The rich are growing richer and the poor are growing poorer.
What are the causes of this? What measures can be taken to reduce this problem?

Today there is a great increase in anti.social behavior and lack of respect to others.
What are the causes of this? What measures can be taken to reduce this problem?

Air travel only benefits the richest people. The majority of people get no advantage from development of air travel.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Some people say politicians promote the development of society. However others believe that it is scientists who have more influence on the world.
Discuss both views and give your opinion.

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@темы: English, IELTS, Writing


Writing FCE - Report


A REPORT is usually written for a superior (e.g. a teacher) or a peer group (e.g. members of an English club). Candidates are expected to give some factual information and make suggestions or recommendations. A report should be clearly organised and may include headings.


- Begin by stating the purpose of your report.
- You may invent where you got the information.
- Use a clear layout with:
- Headings. They will make it clear that your report is not an essay or review.
- Lists of numbered points or bullets where appropriate. (DON'T overdo it, though. If you use them in more than one section, you won't be able to show the full range of structures and vocabulary you know.)
- Divide your report into sections according to the input.
- Develop the ideas in the task input. Focus on a maximum of two points.
- Give a clear summary of the situation and make a comment/suggestion only in the last paragraph.
- Use an impersonal, semi-formal style.

Useful language for a report, + 3 samples

@темы: Writing, FCE, English


Verbs for essay writing

Active Verbs
Note of Caution: Only use the verbs you’re familiar with unless you take the time to examine the definition in the dictionary. This is NOT a list of synonyms. Each word has specific usage patterns that are unique to its meaning.

Literary Essay
Alludes to
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Report or Persuasive Essay that refers to an expert’s opinion or research studies

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Report or Persuasive Essay that describes beginnings, causes, effects, etc.
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Persuasive Essay that refers to the possibilities of what ideas can do, create, or assist with

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Report or Persuasive Essay that involves laws or legal proposals
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@темы: Writing, Vocabulary, English, ESL


О пунктуации


Разделительный знак: как использовать точку с запятой

В русском языке запятые нередко выполняют функцию грамматического или даже интонационного разделителя. Но в английском это ошибка. В предложении «I saw a sad man sitting next to the window, it was Jim Carrey» («Я увидел грустного мужчину, сидевшего у окна, это был Джим Керри») знак препинания неправильный. Здесь нужно поставить не запятую, а точку с запятой: «I saw a sad man sitting next to the window; it was Jim Carrey».
Точка с запятой играет большую роль в английской пунктуационной системе — не случайно этот знак размещен на одной из легкодоступных клавиш латинской компьютерной клавиатуры, тогда как на клавиатуре кириллической он перенесен на верхнюю, цифровую строку. Точка с запятой разделяет простые предложения в сложных, если они не разделены союзом; тем не менее и в случае присутствия союза этот знак можно поставить. Чтобы понять, можно ли использовать точку с запятой, зачастую бывает достаточно спросить себя, можно ли вместо нее поставить точку, разделив предложение на два самостоятельных фрагмента: «I saw a sad man sitting next to the window. It was Jim Carrey» («Я увидел грустного мужчину, сидевшего у окна. Это был Джим Керри»).

Кривая речь: как не ошибиться с кавычками

Оформление прямой речи в английском языке отличается от русскоязычного варианта. Здесь конечный знак препинания в реплике — восклицательный, вопросительный или точку — ставят внутри, а не снаружи кавычек. «It was a real shame.» («Было действительно стыдно»).
Кроме того, в английском нет необходимости ставить двоеточие или тире перед или после прямой речи: здесь можно обойтись запятой: «It was a real shame,» said Hulk» («Было действительно стыдно», — сказал Халк.) В другом варианте эта фраза будет выглядеть схожим образом: Hulk said, «It was a real shame.» (Халк сказал: «Было действительно стыдно»).

Oxford comma: серийная запятая

Oxford comma (оксфордская запятая), или Harvard comma (гарвардская запятая), — это запятая, которая в перечислениях ставится перед союзом. Ее можно использовать, если в списке объектов три или больше элементов, перед союзами and, or или nor. «Jason wanted to hit his boss on the head, kick the bejesus out of him, and hang them on a chandelier, but decided to say nothing» («Джейсону захотелось ударить своего начальника по голове, выпустить ему кишки и развесить их на люстре, но он решил ничего не говорить»).
Несмотря на свое название, серийная запятая больше характерна для американского, чем для британского английского. Некоторые авторы из Великобритании советуют ставить ее лишь для избежания двусмысленности, в то время как американские преподаватели подчас настаивают на обязательной постановке таких запятых.

Интересное предложение: как построить реплику с разными видами связи

В английском языке предложение может быть четырех разных видов:
— простое (simple sentence): подлежащее и сказуемое;
— сложносочиненное (compound sentence): два самостоятельных простых предложения, соединенные союзом;
— сложноподчиненное (complex sentence): главное и придаточное предложение, соединенные союзом;
— сложное предложение с разными видами связи (compound-complex sentence): два самостоятельных простых предложения, соединенных союзом, к одному из которых присоединяется придаточное:
«You could fly to Madrid, or you could go to London by rail since the tickets are so cheap» («Ты можешь полететь в Мадрид или поехать в Лондон на поезде, раз уж билеты такие дешевые»).
Такая схема не совсем согласуется с привычным русскоязычному человеку устройством грамматики, но это скорее плюс: подобные факты, как правило, помогают переключиться на иноязычную систему и начать думать в ее рамках. Сложные предложения с разными видами связи особенно важно использовать на письме еще и потому, что они позволяют отработать постановку запятых. Ведь в английском сложносочиненном запятая нужна, а в сложноподчиненном (если придаточное предложение располагается после главного) — нет.
Как отличить сложносочиненное предложение от сложноподчиненного? Есть одна хитрость. В американских университетах ее называют «список FANBOYS». Союзы, которые указывают на равноправие простых предложений в рамках сложного, легко узнать:
— F — for,
— A — and,
— N — nor,
— B — but,
— O — or,
— Y — yet,
— S, — so.
Если в вашем предложении присутствует один из представителей FANBOYS, оно сложносочиненное, и тогда перед союзом надо поставить запятую: «I saw a goose on the riverside, and it was very angry» («На берегу реки я увидел гуся, и он был очень зол»).
Сложноподчиненное предложение, когда придаточное в нем следует за главным, запятой не потребует: «I went away because the goose seemed to be dangerous» («Я ушел, потому что этот гусь казался опасным»). Стоит, однако, помнить, что если придаточное выйдет на первое место, то знак препинания необходимо будет поставить: «Because the goose seemed to be angry, I went away» («Этот гусь казался опасным, и я ушел»).

@темы: English, Writing, пунктуация


Writing - Graph Discription

Types of Graphs
Line Graph (vertical axis/y-axis; horizontal axis/x-axis, solid line/curve, dotted line/curve)
Bar Chart
Pie Chart
Flow Chart

Movement (Verbs): Up
Raise smth
Go up
Shot up
Put up
Push up
Step up
Shoot Up

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@темы: Writing, TED, Graphs, English


A Nice Article on Letter Sign-offs

57 Ways To Sign Off On An Email
by Susan Adams

"One day last fall, my colleague Miguel Morales received an email with a sign-off that was so strange, it has stuck in his mind for the last year. It came from Melissa Geisler, who works in digital sports programming and production at Yahoo. Below Geisler’s title and above her cell phone number was this mystifying quote: “The Bird is equal to or greater than the Word,” attributed to someone named, simply, “scientist.”

With this and other strange sign-offs in mind, Miguel suggested I tackle the subject of how best to conclude an email. I polled colleagues, friends and four people I’d consider experts, including Cynthia Lett, 55, a business etiquette consultant in Silver Spring, MD. Below is their combined wisdom and some commentary of my own. I offer four rules and a long list of potential sign-offs.

But first, Geisler’s quote. She says it came from an episode of the animated cable TV show Family Guy, about a song from the 1960s. “That was me trying to have a little fun,” she says, adding that she has since changed her signature to add Yahoo’s new logo, and abandoning the quote, which she hoped recipients enjoyed while it lasted. Much as I respect Geisler’s attempt at levity, I think it’s a mistake to leave people guessing about what you want to say.

Here are my four rules for signing off on emails:
1. Don’t include quotes.

Etiquette consultant Lett advocates a more formal approach. “I don’t believe emails are conversations,” she says. “They’re letters.” I disagree. Emails are their own form of communication and they’re evolving fast. Farhad Manjoo, 35, Wall Street Journal technology columnist and until recently, the voice behind a Slate podcast, “Manners for the Digital Age,” puts it well: “An email is both a letter and an instant message,” he observes.

All of that said, here is a list of common and not-so-common email sign-offs, with commentary and notes from the experts.
Best + others

@темы: Writing, English


English Is Crazy!))

We'll begin with box, and the plural is boxes.
But the plural of ox should be oxen, not oxes.
Then one fowl is goose, but two are called geese.
Yet the plural of moose should never be meese.
You may find a lone mouse or a whole lot of mice,
But the plural of house is houses, not hice.
If the plural of man is always called men,
When couldn't the plural of pan be called pen?

The cow in the plural may be cows or kine,
But the plural of vow is vows, not vine.
And I speak of a foot, and you show me your feet,
But I give a boot - would a pair be called beet?

If one is a tooth and a whole set are teeth,
Why shouldn't the plural of booth be called beeth?
If the singular is this and plural is these,
Why shouldn't the plural of kiss be nicknamed kese?

Then one may be that, and three may be those,
Yet the plural of hat would never be hose.
We speak of a brother, and also of brethren,
But though we say mother, we never say methren.

The masculine pronouns are he, his and him,
But imagine the feminine she, shis, and shim!
So our English, I think you will all agree,
Is the trickiest language you ever did see. I take it you already know
Of tough and bough and cough and dough?
Others may stumble, but not you
On hiccough, thorough, slough, and through?
Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,
To learn of less familiar traps?
Beware of heard, a dreadful word
That looks like beard and sounds like bird.

And dead; it's said like bed, not bead;
For goodness sake, don't call it deed!
Watch out for meat and great and threat,
(they rhyme with suite and straight and debt).

A moth is not a moth in mother.
Nor both in bother, broth in brother.
And here is not a match for there.
And dear and fear for bear and pear.

And then there's dose and rose and lose --
Just look them up -- and goose and choose.
And cork and work and card and ward,
And font and front and word and sword.

And do and go, then thwart and cart.
Come, come, I've hardly made a start.
A dreadful language? Why, man alive,
I'd learned to talk it when I was five.

And yet to write it, the more I tried,
I hadn't learned it at fifty-five!

@темы: Vocabulary, Writing, videos


Guardian and Observer style guide

About this style guide
This is the guide to writing, editing and English usage followed by journalists at the Guardian, Observer and theguardian.com
Edited by David Marsh and Amelia Hodsdon. Illustrations by Jakob Hinrichs.
Refer to Collins English Dictionary for guidance on anything that does not appear in the style guide.

+ for more of language usage and abusage:

@темы: словари, reference, Writing, Vocabulary, English



40 Writing Topics: Description
Writing Suggestions for a Descriptive Paragraph, Essay, or Speech

@темы: ESL, English, Writing, links, topics

Living environment - Warehouse 14